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Journal for andrewpaul9005Journal for andrewpaul9005

The latest infrastructure Philippines are aimed at addressing a series of problems. First, the country\'s chronic underspending and decades-long backlog in public infrastructure would be addressed. Second, public-private partnerships (PPPs) would attract Chinese FDI, a key issue for the Philippines. Finally, the government aims to create a better environment for investment and employment. But how can this impact the most marginalised communities?
Public-private partnerships (PPPs)

A strong and growing infrastructure sector is crucial for high economic growth, improved social living standards, and increased international investment. The new administration has recognized the potential of Public-Private Partnerships and plans to further boost its use. The DPWH will undertake reforms to create an environment that encourages private business and will allow it to bankroll more projects. Here are five ways to boost your PPPs:

Philippine infrastructure development will require a large investment in public-private partnerships. The country has a huge infrastructure gap that will require substantial investments over the next decade. Government funding is insufficient to meet this need. PPPs can help bridge the funding gap. The Philippines is poised to be a lucrative destination for international investors, as the government is willing to listen to foreign investors and collaborate with multilateral agencies and experts.
Chinese FDI

The lack of Chinese FDI in Philippine infrastructure development is largely explained by weak Philippine institutions. The Philippines received just 2.0% of Chinese FDI in ASEAN. Moreover, Laos and Myanmar have significantly lower state capacity and rent seeking rates. Both of these factors could be contributing factors in the Philippines\' underperformance in attracting Chinese FDI. While these reasons could be partially or fully responsible for the decline in Philippine FDI, there is no reason to dismiss Chinese investments in the infrastructure sector.

The role of local elites in regulating Chinese FDI in Philippine infrastructure development is also a concern. Philippine elites cling to whatever government is in power, which makes it extremely difficult to determine the level of commitment to the projects. If Chinese firms are involved in these projects, wrongdoing on their part could derail their progress and even backfire on local elites who supported them. Hence, the Chinese government should insist on a comprehensive impact assessment before signing any deal. Alternatively, Chinese firms could partner with local government agencies and conduct a review of the environmental and social impact of their projects.
Investment climate

Despite the huge natural resources and human resources of the Philippines, overall development outcomes in the country have fallen short of their potential. Poor public services and weak government institutions have created a vicious cycle, with citizens unwilling to support the government with adequate resources. The key to breaking this vicious cycle is improving the efficiency and effectiveness of public service delivery, increasing government revenue and enhancing public trust. In this context, the role of infrastructure is crucial.

While foreign ownership restrictions still limit investments in certain sectors, recent measures have made it easier to attract foreign investors. The Philippines has a large consumer market and continuous liberalisation efforts. In 2021, the country passed the largest tax reform in its history. Corporate income tax in the Philippines, which is among the highest in the region, has been reduced to twenty-five percent, as part of a package to spur economic growth.
Impacts on marginalised groups

This study has found that local government officials and village residents have different priorities in the adaptation to climate change. While those with higher educational levels are more likely to propose systemic and social capacity-building adaptations, those with lower education focus more on physical infrastructures. However, the study also found that other factors may also impact the adaptation proposals. Among these factors, education and social class may play a significant role.

People living in poor areas experience marginalization. These communities are excluded from mainstream social, economic, and cultural life. They do not have access to resources and services that others can afford. These groups are often disadvantaged because of their race, gender, sexual orientation, and physical ability. Governments often do little to address these issues, and the results are negative for these communities. Further, the government must work to ensure that the benefits of society are equally shared among all communities.
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